The sources of the water are a combination of melting snow and the drainage of rain from the surrounding hills and plateaux which have a Mediterranean climate. ([8]). Le canal aujourd’hui. [34] The European brook lamprey has been seen in recent times but it may have disappeared since.[35]. The Durance is the second longest (after the Saône) of the tributaries of the Rhône and the third largest in terms of its flow (after the Saône and Isère). The construction of the Marseille canal in the middle of the 19th century allowed the metropolitan area of Marseille to develop quickly. D'une longueur totale de 323,8 kilomètres, la Durance est la plus importante rivière de Provence. Point de vue n°2 : La Durance. The Durance is represented in the form of an ornate monument at the Palais Longchamp, in Marseille, built between 1862 and 1869 by the architect Espérandieu, to celebrate the arrival of water from the Durance, via the Canal de Marseille. Les diffĂŠrents ĂŠcosystèmes interdĂŠpendants qui correspondaient Ă  cette morphologie (en eau vive et en eau morte) cèdent aujourd'hui leur place Ă  des ripisylves. La Durance fournit 75% de l'eau consommée en PACA. It is also depicted beneath a sculpture of a pregnant woman in Charleval, Bouches-du-Rhône. [3] Similar names are found in the names of many rivers in the Western Alps: Dora in Italy, Dranse in Haute-Savoie, and the Drôme in south-eastern France. From there to Marseille the canal follows an 80-kilometre (50 mi) path, of which 17 kilometres (11 mi) is underground. La moyenne et basse Durance forme encore un ÂŤ lit en tresses Âť, constituĂŠ de bras multiples, vivants ou morts : ce dernier s'explique par les importantes variations passĂŠes de dĂŠbit. The river is famous historically for its unstable course and violent floods. The period of increased flooding was not only due to the cooling starting from the 14th and until the 19th century (with increased rain and snowfall), but also because the major deforestation of the slopes of the mountains of the basin of the Durance, starting from the 16th century. The upper Durance is an alpine river with a flow ranging from 18 to 197 cubic metres per second (640 to 6,960 cu ft/s). [41], This trade fed the activity of an important port, near to the crossroads at Sisteron, at the place called 'Le Bourguet'. Although it was difficult to cross, except in Sisteron, the Durance was nevertheless navigable. [40] At other places there were ferries, in particular at Pertuis,[citation needed] whose name is based on it ferry. Cecile Miramont, Denis Furestier, Guy Barruol, Catherine Lonchambon, This page was last edited on 23 September 2020, at 03:27. The unstable and sometimes steep banks prevented easy access to ferries. The Durance is the longest river in Metropolitan France without a department named after it. The existence of a bridge at Sisteron was recorded. Clébert & Rouyer, "La Durance", pp.11-12. In more recent times even suspension bridges often had to be re-built after floods. All these rivers have their sources in mountains, and are fast-running. [1] Its drainage basin is 14,472 km2 (5,588 sq mi).[2]. The banks, although less wet, still accommodate 110 species of birds during the year, plus 82 species of migratory birds, which rest, feed and sometime reproduce. Rivière dite « capricieuse », autrefo… There remain some black spots in the valley (downstream from the Arkema factory at Château-Arnoux, below the confluence with the Calavon.[31]. 02:00. La plus importante rivière de Provence, la Durance, y prend sa source à 2390 mètres d'altitude sur les pentes du sommet des Anges, au pré de Gondran. Elle se jette dans le Rhône à quelques kilomètres au sud-ouest d'Avignon, entre le Vaucluse et les Bouches-du-Rhône dont elle matérialise la limite. La Durance prend sa source à Mongenèvre, à 1830m d'altitude. Prenez la deuxième passerelle, traversez le ruisseau et allez jusqu'au bout de la digue, vue sur la Durance. It can vary between 40 cubic metres per second (1,400 cu ft/s) (the most severe low water levels) and 6,000 cubic metres per second (210,000 cu ft/s) in catastrophic historic floods,[12] levels reached in 1843, 1882 and 1886. [23] It was followed by the Adam de Craponne canal, 50 kilometres (31 mi) long, dug in nine months in 1554 from Silvacane to Arles), the canal des Alpilles, the canal de Marseille, the canal de Carpentras, the canal de Manosque, the canal de Ventavon, and the hundreds of other smaller ones,[24] totalling 540 kilometres (340 mi) dug between the end of the 16th century and the end of the 19th century.[25]. La longueur entre sa source et son embouchure est de 323,8 km. [31] Avian diversity increased after the dams were built, but there was probably once a greater diversity. À l'ĂŠpoque prĂŠromaine, elle constituait notamment une frontière naturelle entre diffĂŠrents peuples gaulois ĂŠtablis le long de son lit, comme les Cavares (Cavaillon) et les Salyens (Bouches-du-RhĂ´ne). Other goods were transported by the river, including salt, those these were subject to ten tolls along the 300 kilometres (190 mi) of the river.[43]. L'ouvrage le plus important issu de ces travaux est le barrage hydroĂŠlectrique de Serre-Ponçon (1961), dont la retenue homonyme constitue le plus grand lac artificiel d'Europe. Courbes. L'ensemble constitue un dĂŠbit jusqu'Ă  dix fois infĂŠrieur au dĂŠbit estival (d'ĂŠtiage) antĂŠrieur Ă  la mise en eau de Serre-Ponçon. Longue de 305 kilomètres, la Durance est le second plus grand affluent du Rhône, juste après la Saône. La Durance is also the name of an academic bulletin by history and geography professors at Aix-Marseille. La Durance prend ses sources vers 2 390 mètres d'altitude, au pré de Gondran, sur les pentes du sommet des Anges . De façon générale, nous utilisons les informations que vous nous fournissez pour la gestion et le développement de notre activité. Au Quaternaire, après avoir ĂŠtĂŠ captĂŠe par un affluent du Coulon, son cours fut dĂŠtournĂŠ vers le RhĂ´ne, qu'elle joint aujourd'hui non loin d'Avignon. The Durance is better known than the other two rivers because the Durance valley is an old and important trade route, whereas the valleys of the Clarée and Guisane are effectively dead ends.[4][5]. La Durance, une sp cialiste du coup ! at Mirabeau, the beginning of the 13th century, close to Sainte-Madeleine-du-Pont; at Savines, the most used bridge on the Upper Durance (built in the 15th century). Au Moyen Âge, l'itinĂŠraire devint un important chemin pour les pĂŠlerins. The Romanian surrealist painter, Victor Brauner, took refuge in 1942 in Remollon and made several paintings on materials that he found.[52]. Twelve million years ago, the Durance flowed directly into the Mediterranean. Bassin versant de la Rivière: Le Rhône et les cours d'eau côtiers méditerranéens: Coordonnées géographiques de la source de la Rivière La Durance: Latitude: 44° 53' 37'' Nord (44.8936°) Longitude: 6° 43' 17'' Est (6.7213°) La source de la Rivière est à une altitude de 2 343 m. Confluent De nos jours, le canal de Marseille n’est plus l’unique source d’approvisionnement de la ville en eau potable, il y contribue pour près de 70%.Le canal de Provence, construit dans les années 1970, en fournit le tiers restant, en puisant dans le Verdon.. Sources de la Durance. De nos jours, enfin, l'autoroute inachevĂŠe de Sisteron–Gap bĂŠnĂŠficie encore de la pĂŠnĂŠtrante qu'offre la Durance pour dĂŠsenclaver la haute Provence et, Ă  terme, le Champsaur. [1] The Durance itself is a tributary of the Rhône and flows into the Rhône near Avignon. La Durance, de part ses fortes variabilités saisonnières, ses débits et l'intensité de ses débordements, fût jusque dans les années 1960 et la construction du barrage de Serre-Ponçon, une rivière périlleuse tant pour sa navigation que pour sa traversée. Ainsi, en plus de traiter les demandes de nos clients, les informations nous aident à améliorer le contenu de notre site, et à développer de nouveaux produits et services. Son bassin, qui couvre une superficie de 14 200 km2, soit la moitié de la région Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur, est, après celui de la Saône (30 000 km2), le plus important bassin affluent du Rhône. Christophe Garrone, “the artificial wetlands basic Durance”, Direction of the environment, of sustainable development and agriculture. It then continues south combining with the Gyronde  — the Écrins glacial stream — at L'Argentière-la-Bessée. Depuis la fin des annĂŠes 1980, 36 espèces de poissons ont ĂŠtĂŠ recensĂŠes au total lors de l'ensemble des opĂŠrations d'ĂŠchantillonage, parmi lesquelles truites, brochets, carpes et barbots dominent. ), 3. Accès professionnels : Espace Presse - … The Durance provides today two-thirds of the water for the city of Marseilles. [8] For comparison, at approximately 100 kilometres (62 mi) from its source, the Isère is at 330 metres (1,080 ft) altitude and the Durance at 700 metres (2,300 ft), which contributes partially to its fast-flowing nature, including in the lower part of the river. Dans le lit naturel, il reste aujourd'hui les rejets des canaux d'irrigation secondaires Ă  vocation agricole (leur alimentation est faite par le canal E.D.F. Its descent is unusually rapid at 81 m/km (165 ft/mi) in its first 12 km (7.5 mi), then 15 m/km (30 ft/mi) to its confluence with the Gyronde,[7] and then still nearly 8 m/km (16 ft/mi) to the confluence with the Ubaye. Options . The dams in the valley have reduced the incidence of floods and so have allowed the colonisation of alluvial space by alder and poplar in riparian forests. [32], The populations of algae and water plants (100 species on average) and water invertebrates (77 species) are more varied than before the dams compared with populations on the similar Asse and Buëch. The first known irrigation canal is the Canal Saint-Julien, dug in 1171 by the Marquis de Forbin. Its direction changes from southerly to westerly then northwesterly, aligning with the small Provençal mountain ranges between which it flows (Alpilles and Luberon). Barrage de Serre-Ponçon et amĂŠnagements hydroĂŠlectriques, Les gorges de la Durance sur la ligne de chemin de fer Veynes-Briançon, Syndicat mixte d'amĂŠnagement de la vallĂŠe de la Durance, CommunautĂŠ de communes de la moyenne Durance, Identification des diffĂŠrents lits de la Durance par photo-interprĂŠtation, Laboratoire de GĂŠophysique et GĂŠodynamique, http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Durance (rivière), WikipĂŠdia : l’encyclopĂŠdie libre et gratuite, AURORAE LIBRI : livres anciens, textes rares & illustrĂŠs modernes, VINTAGE-ERA : informatique vintage, retro gaming, jeux de rĂ´les et imprimĂŠs des annĂŠes 1970-2000, Bouches-du-RhĂ´ne : Peyrolles-en-Provence. Average monthly discharge (m 3 /s) at Saint-Paul-lès-Durance Course [ change | change source ] The Durance starts in the pré de Gondran (" meadow of Gondran"), on the east side of the Sommet des Anges mountain , in the commune of Montgenèvre (a ski resort near Briançon ), Hautes-Alpes department, at an elevation of about 2,325 m (7,628 ft). There are approximately 75 species of mammals in the Durance catchment area, including: Eurasian beaver, southwestern water vole, Eurasian water shrew, many species of bat (barbastelle (Barbastella barbastellus, large murine (Myotis myotis), large rhinolophe (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum), minioptère of Schreibers (Miniopterus schreibersi), small murine (Myotis blythii), small rhinolophe (Rhinolophus hipposideros), vespertilion with indented ears (Myotis emarginatus), and vespertilion of Capaccini (Myotis capaccinii)). This programme was an almost complete success: The Durance used to have an average natural flow of 188 cubic metres per second (6,600 cu ft/s) and behaved like a Mediterranean river, but dams and canals have changed it considerably. The flood of 31 May and 1 June 1877 swept away the bridge of Tallard. The few factories that used the river's energy have closed (an aluminium factory at L'Argentière-la-Bessée) or are being closed (Arkema at Saint-Auban). L'amĂŠnagement contemporain de la Durance, entrepris Ă  partir de janvier 1955 et de la ÂŤ Loi d'amĂŠnagement de Serre-Ponçon et la basse Durance Âť a considĂŠrablement modifiĂŠ l'hydrologie de la rivière. From there the canal diverges to the west from the Durance to Le Puy-Sainte-Réparade. For the commune in the Lot-et-Garonne department, see, Middle section: from Serre-Ponçon to Mirabeau. Vous pouvez consulter la dernière version de l’article ÂŤ Durance (rivière) Âť de WikipĂŠdia Ă  l’adresse http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Durance (rivière) ou la modifier en cliquant ici. From the 12th to the 19th century, the river was used for floating timber downstream, in particular by the monks of Boscodon, who were given the privilege in 1191 to use the river. Cette dernière, riche en alluvions, est rĂŠputĂŠe pour ses cultures maraĂŽchères, notamment au niveau de Cavaillon. Here the river was diverted for the development of modern agriculture and the construction of the A51 motorway. C'est dans le Briançonnais, à Montgenèvre, que la Durance prend sa source. Les principaux affluents de la Durance sont : Parmi ces derniers, le Verdon a fait l'objet d'un amĂŠnagement hydroĂŠlectrique simultanĂŠ Ă  celui de la basse Durance sur son cours moyen et infĂŠrieur. In 1955, the law defined the EDF Durance-Verdon project had three objectives: Over 40 years, this project required the construction of 23 dams and water extraction points starting upstream of Claux sur Argentiere down to Mallemort and the supply of 33 hydroelectric power stations and several control stations.[27]. This quality was obtained thanks to actions of clean-up projects on the river itself and on the tributaries of the Luye and Calavon (also called le Coulon)). [36] The changes in the flow also limited river navigation (in spite of size of the river in periods with a high flow. The 1852 floods affected the entire basin of the Durance, from Sisteron to its confluence in Avignon. A river is known as "capricious", alternating between its feared flash floods (it was called the third plague of Provence) and its low water levels. This runs near to Montgenèvre and then flows into the larger Clarée river, and then passes through Briançon before the Guisane joins it. La baignade est interdite en moyenne et basse Durance et la pèche y est règlementĂŠe. Later it becomes a Mediterranean river with the characteristic morphology. This division allows surveying and mapping of the land at risk.[49]. La Durance prend sa source à Montgenèvre, dans le département des Hautes-Alpes à une altitude d'environ 2300 mètres. Some of the water diverted by the dams is used for irrigation. They lasted varying times until they were destroyed in various ways: In 1843, 1856, 1882 and 1886 there were catastrophic floods. Sujet: Re: Source de la Durance Dim 5 Aoû 2012 - 18:49 Pas forcément moins ou plus ouvert, simplement compenser l'exposition (en -). Il n’y a pas à proprement parler une source de la Durance. 300.000 – 120.000 ans. The latter's tributaries bring rain water mainly in spring, autumn and winter but little during the summer. Pendant la glaciation de Riss , la source de la Durance se trouve aux environs de Sisteron, là où commence la calotte glaciaire qui recouvre alors les Alpes. Son autre nom est canal edf de sisteron, rivière la durance Cecile Miramont, "History of river landscapes", in Guy Barruol, Denis Furestier, Catherine Lonchambon. Elle prend sa source sur le mont Chenaillet (2634 m), dans les Hautes-Alpes (05), près de la frontière italienne, et se jette dans le Rhône à quelques kilomètres au sud d’Avignon, dans le … The lowest water levels occur in winter in the upper valley, and in summer in the middle and lower part of the river. Just before the narrow gap in the mountains at Sisteron, the Durance joins Buëch and the Sasse. For some families of birds the number of individuals also increased. Après son passage dans d'ĂŠtroites gorges alpines sur son cours supĂŠrieur (en amont du lac de Serre-Ponçon), le bassin versant de la Durance, qui couvre au total près de la moitiĂŠ du territoire de la rĂŠgion Provence-Alpes-CĂ´te d'Azur, est caractĂŠrisĂŠ par une plaine fertile qui s'ouvre de part et d'autre du piĂŠmont de son cours moyen (jusqu'Ă  la cluse de Mirabeau) et s'ĂŠtale jusqu'au massif du Luberon au nord et jusqu'aux Alpilles au sud sur son cours infĂŠrieur. However, a longer route is traced by the Clarée-Durance system with a length of 325 kilometres (202 mi). Its total drainage area is 14,225 square kilometres (5,492 sq mi). Randonnée sans difficulté Possibilité de rallonger la randonnée en rentrant par le lac Noir Les Fraches et la Chau. In French cinema is the setting of the film L'Eau vive by François Villiers is during the construction of the dam at Serre-Ponçon. Le petit ruisseau descend rapidement le col de Montgenèvre* et rejoint la Clarée* après 8 km de course. Durant la mĂŞme pĂŠriode, d'importants travaux d'endiguement furent d'abord motivĂŠs par la nĂŠcessitĂŠ de mettre un terme aux dĂŠgats provoquĂŠs par les crues rĂŠcurrentes de la rivière : ainsi, un proverbe d'Ancien RĂŠgime citait la Durance parmi les trois flĂŠaux de la Provence. Les plus anciennes traces d'occupation humaine le long de la Durance sont au confluent de la BlĂŠone (grotte de l'Escale) et datent du PalĂŠolithique supĂŠrieur. 75 espèces de mammifères sont connues, parmi lesquelles les castors et les musaraignes aquatiques ont ĂŠtĂŠ rejoints rĂŠcemment par le rat musquĂŠ, espèce allogène. Cette dernière alimente d'autre part par son canal une quinzaine de centrales hydroĂŠlectriques, fournissant près de la moitiĂŠ des besoins en ĂŠlectricitĂŠ de la rĂŠgion par ce moyen. In pre-Roman times, the Durance was the border between various Celto-Ligurian people established along its course, such as the Cavares (Cavaillon) and the Salyes (Bouches-du-Rhône). Among the painters to have represented it are Guigou and Monticelli, close friends, who settled in Saint-Paul-lès-Durance and made many paintings where it appears, either as background, or as subject (86 of the 421 paintings by Guigou). The Durance is 305 kilometres (190 mi) long from its source at the foot of Sommet des Anges, at 2,390 metres (7,840 ft) high, above Montgenèvre, to its confluencewith the Rhône. Les eaux détournées de la Durance, aménagée depuis les années 1960, sont indispensables à la prospérité de la Provence. Several specialized businesses maintained this system transport. The bas-reliefs at Cabrières-d'Aigues depict the river being used for the transport of various liquid food products such as wine and olive oil. There were only 10 raftmen remaining in 1896 and only one in 1908.[44]. Âť, dĂŠvie la plus grande partie de l'eau de la rivière jusqu'Ă  l'ĂŠtang de Berre en suivant le lit naturel de cette dernière. La Durance (en occitan : Durença selon la norme classique, ou en provençal : Durènço selon la norme mistralienne) est une rivière du Sud-Est de la France se jettant dans le Rhône, dont elle est le deuxième affluent après la Saône pour la longueur et le troisième après la Saône et lIsère pour le débit. [44] This ferry at Cadenet and one at Mirabeau were used to transport flocks of sheep for seasonal migrations. Water quality is considered good in the higher valley, in spite of the number of dams, which deprive the Durance of the power needed to carry sediment away. At the outlet into the Lac de Serre-Ponçon, the medium flow is 81 cubic metres per second (2,900 cu ft/s);[7] at Oraison it is 123 cubic metres per second (4,300 cu ft/s)[7] and after the confluence with the Verdon, flow reaches 174 cubic metres per second (6,100 cu ft/s)[7] (250 to 330 m³/s in spring, 100 m³/s in the summer[13]). Consequently, it is classified as a Natura 2000 protected area. The Durance played a very important part in the history of Provence, and largely contributed to the economic growth and population of the Marseilles area, after having been an obstacle for centuries. [7], At Mirabeau, the lowest flow was 27 cubic metres per second (950 cu ft/s) (during the drought of 1921) i.e. [37] During the Riss glaciation, the source of the Durance was at Sisteron, where the icecap finished. Le canal de Marseille prend sa « source » dans la commune de Saint-Estève-Janson et se termine à la Ciotat. This descent stays re… For several years a club has revived the tradition of rafting, each year building rafts from tree trunks then navigating a section of the Durance with them. C'est l'arbre de vie de la Provence. [46] Nevertheless, the ferry services were scarcer than on the Rhône with a ferry every 9 to 11 kilometres (5.6 to 6.8 mi) on average, versus every 5.2 kilometres (3.2 mi) on the Rhône. Jacques Sapiega, géorama, "The Durance & The Verdon". Montgenèvre fait partie des plus anciennes stations de ski de France.