Les foules ont donc une psychologie, une personnalité qu’il importe de comprendre. Nonetheless, the town was proud that Gustave Le Bon was born there and later named a street after him. A native of Nogent-le-Rotrou, Le Bon qualified as a doctor of medicine at the University of Paris in 1866. The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind (French: Psychologie des Foules; literally: Psychology of Crowds) is a book authored by Gustave Le Bon that was first published in 1895.. [24] In 1889, he released Les Premières Civilisations de l'Orient, giving in it an overview of the Mesopotamian, Indian, Chinese and Egyptian civilisations. by Gustave le Bon and Robert K. Stevenson | Mar 7, 2020. His basic approach was that human beings collectively develop behaviors that they would never develop individually. Dans cet ouvrage, Gustave Le Bon montre que le comportement des hommes réunis en groupe n’est en rien réductible à ce qu’ils sont chacun pris isolément. Le Bon's works were influential to such disparate figures as Theodore Roosevelt and Benito Mussolini, Sigmund Freud and José Ortega y Gasset, Adolf Hitler and Vladimir Lenin. Charles-Marie Gustave Le Bon est né à Nogent-le-Rotrou, Centre-Val de Loire le 7 mai 1841 dans une famille d'origine bretonne.Au moment de la naissance de Le Bon, sa mère, Annette Joséphine Eugénic Tétiot Desmarlinais, avait vingt-six ans et son père, Jean-Marie Charles Le Bon, quarante et un ans et fonctionnaire provincial du gouvernement français. Gustave Le Bon (1895) Psychologie des foules Édition Félix Alcan, 9e édition, 1905, 192 pp. For Le Bon, the crowd inverts Darwin's law of evolution and becomes atavistic, proving Ernst Haeckel's embryological theory: "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny". This lack of self-restraint allows individuals to "yield to instincts" and to accept the instinctual drives of their "racial unconscious". By Gustave Le Bon 1895 The following work is devoted to an account of the characteristics of crowds. [13], From 1871 on, Le Bon was an avowed opponent of socialist pacifists and protectionists, who he believed were halting France's martial development and stifling her industrial growth; stating in 1913: "Only people with lots of cannons have the right to be pacifists. Paperback $15.00 $ 15. Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego, Les Classiques des Sciences Sociales: Le Bon, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gustave_Le_Bon&oldid=992288456, Articles to be expanded from October 2016, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Léonore identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 4 December 2020, at 14:28. As a group of people gather together and coalesces to form a crowd, there is a "magnetic influence given out by the crowd" that transmutes every individual's behaviour until it becomes governed by the "group mind". Contagion refers to the spread in the crowd of particular behaviours and individuals sacrifice their personal interest for the collective interest. [10] He maintained his passion for writing and authored several papers on physiological studies, as well as an 1868 textbook about sexual reproduction, before joining the French Army as a medical officer after the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in July 1870. He released Le Déséquilibre du Monde, Les Incertitudes de l'heure présente and L'évolution actuelle du monde, illusions et réalités in 1923, 1924 and 1927 respectively, giving in them his views of the world during the volatile interwar period. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Anonymity provides to rational individuals a feeling of invincibility and the loss of personal responsibility. Gustave Le Bon - The Crowd: A Study of the popular Mind Gustave Le Bon - The Crowd: A Study of the popular Mind Gustave Le Bon predicted already in 1895 the 20th century’s mass phenomenona in his epochal work The Crowd: A study of the popular mind.He researched the dynamics of large groups of people and how their behaviour patterns were differing from the individual’s behaviour. Defeat in the war coupled with being a first-hand witness to the Paris Commune of 1871 strongly shaped Le Bon's worldview. The strength of his personal networks is apparent from the guest list: participants included cousins Henri and Raymond Poincaré, Paul Valéry, Alexander Izvolsky, Henri Bergson, Marcellin Berthelot and Aristide Briand. He differentiates between different kinds of crowds such as mobs, juries, elected bodies, and simple crowds. 勒庞 (Gustave Le Bon 1841.5.7-1931.12.13),法国社会心理学家、社会学家,群体心理学的创始人,有“群体社会的马基雅维里”之称。他出生于法国诺晋特-勒-卢特鲁(Nogent-le-Rotrou),逝于法国马恩-拉-科盖特(Marnes-la-Coquette)。代表作《乌合之众》等。 In Gustave Le Bon. 95. — Gustave Le Bon, The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind, p. 114, Viking Press, 1960. Gustave Le Bon. This work became a respected cavalry manual, and Le Bon extrapolated his studies on the behaviour of horses to develop theories on early childhood education. Cherchez cette citation sur Google Livre. Gustave le Bon – Early Years. 1 28e édition, Alcan, 1921.. 2 Op.cit., pp. After receiving a doctorate of medicine, Le Bon traveled in Europe, North Africa, and Asia and wrote several books on anthropology and archaeology. Psicología de las Masas - Gustave Le Bon. He became a Grand-Croix of the Legion of Honour in 1929. At the time of Le Bon's birth, his mother, Annette Josephine Eugénic Tétiot Desmarlinais, was twenty-six and his father, Jean-Marie Charles Le Bon, was forty-one and a provincial functionary of the French government. Brand new: lowest price. Gustave Le Bon One of the most influential works of social psychology in history, The Crowd was highly instrumental in creating this field of study by analyzing, in detail, mass behavior. Dautre part, Le Bon dégage une i… During the first half of the twentieth century, Le Bon's writings were used by media researchers such as Hadley Cantril and Herbert Blumer to describe the reactions of subordinate groups to media. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. 4.4 out of 5 stars 5. Pensées brèves (1918) during the war. Il m’a toutefois fallu un peu plus de temps pour comprendre pourquoi. [21][22] He followed this with a trip to Nepal, becoming the first Frenchman to visit the country, and released Voyage au Népal in 1886. [7], When Le Bon was eight years old, his father obtained a new post in French government and the family, including Gustave's younger brother Georges, left Nogent-le-Rotrou never to return. [1][2][3] He is best known for his 1895 work The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind, which is considered one of the seminal works of crowd psychology.[4][5]. 13-14.. 3 Op. [19][20] He also described their culture as superior to that of the Turks who governed them, and translations of this work were inspirational to early Arab nationalists. [30], Both were best-sellers, with Psychologie des Foules being translated into nineteen languages within one year of its appearance. Social movements help to build the new order.…. He pointed out that the main reasons why individuals lose themselves within a group are: 1. In La psychologie des foules (1895; The Crowd), his most popular work, he argued that the conscious personality of the individual in a crowd is submerged and that the collective crowd mind dominates; crowd behaviour is unanimous, emotional, and intellectually weak. He opted against the formal practice of medicine as a physician, instead beginning his writing career the same year of his graduation. Le Bon era un convencido del determinismogeográfico. 00. Sicología de las masas (Spanish Edition) by Gustave Le Bon | May 15, 2014. Gustave Le Bon, (born May 7, 1841, Nogent-le-Rotrou, France—died Dec. 13, 1931, Marnes-la-Coquette), French social psychologist best known for his study of the psychological characteristics of crowds. Autres citations Le Bon was a direct descendant of Jean-Odet Carnot, whose grandfather, Jean Carnot, had a brother, Denys, from whom the fifth president of the French Third Repub… The lowest-priced brand-new, unused, unopened, undamaged item in its original packaging (where packaging is applicable). [6] Le Bon was a direct descendant of Jean-Odet Carnot, whose grandfather, Jean Carnot, had a brother, Denys, from whom the fifth president of the French Third Republic, Marie François Sadi Carnot, was directly descended. These works rankled the largely socialist academic establishment of France. Cet ouvrage est indispensable pour comprendre la vie sociale. Therefore, they stop feeling responsible for their actions because the… [11] During the war, Le Bon organised a division of military ambulances. Cette phrase possède 147 mots. The whole of the common characteristics with which heredity endows the individuals of a race constitute the genius of the race. He then travelled widely, touring Europe, Asia and North Africa. Les phrases célèbres de citation Gustave Le Bon [23], He next published Les Civilisations de l'Inde (1887), in which he applauded Indian architecture, art and religion but argued that Indians were comparatively inferior to Europeans in regard to scientific advancements, and that this had facilitated British domination. Theodore Roosevelt as well as Charles G. Dawes and many other American progressives in the early 20th century were also deeply affected by Le Bon's writings.[50]. [9], After his graduation, Le Bon remained in Paris, where he taught himself English and German by reading Shakespeare's works in each language. His was a man of most exceptional intelligence; it sprang entirely from within himself; he was his own master, his own initiator.... Science and philosophy have suffered a cruel loss.[43]. Updates? Gustave Le Bon examines many different kinds of crowds and how they work. ", George Lachmann Mosse claimed that fascist theories of leadership that emerged during the 1920s owed much to Le Bon's theories of crowd psychology. "The leaders we speak of," says Le Bon, "are usually men of action rather than of words. At this stage, the psychological crowd becomes homogeneous and malleable to suggestions from its strongest members. [11] The results of his journeys were a number of books, and a development in Le Bon's thinking to also view culture to be influenced chiefly by hereditary factors such as the unique racial features of the people. 4 Le Bon Gustave - How Races and Peoples Transform Their Civilization and Arts.pdf. À l’origine, Gustave Le Bon est médecin. During his university years, Le Bon wrote articles on a range of medical topics, the first of which related to the maladies that plagued those who lived in swamp-like conditions. The family was of Breton origin, his father was a provincial official of the French government. [48] Le Bon also influenced Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks.[49]. Allport insisted instead that collective behaviour involves merely a group of people…, Le Bon suggested that in a period of widespread discontent crowd action serves to destroy an old order in preparation for a new one. [42], In putting an end to the long, diverse and fruitful activity of Gustave Le Bon, death deprived our culture of a truly remarkable man. Learn about this topic in these articles: discussed in biography. Le Bon detailed three key processes that create the psychological crowd: i) Anonymity, ii) Contagion and iii) Suggestibility. Cherchez Gustave Le Bon sur Amazon et Wikipédia. [35], In L'Évolution de la Matière (1905), Le Bon anticipated the mass–energy equivalence, and in a 1922 letter to Albert Einstein complained about his lack of recognition. Le Bon believed an understanding of crowd psychology was essential for a proper understating of the both history and the nature of man. He analysed the peoples and the civilisations he encountered under the umbrella of the nascent field of anthropology, developing an essentialist view of humanity, and invented a portable cephalometer during his travels. 380 citations de Gustave Le Bon - Ses plus belles pensées Citations de Gustave Le Bon Sélection de 380 citations et phrases de Gustave Le Bon - Découvrez un proverbe, une phrase, une parole, une pensée, une formule, un dicton ou une citation de Gustave Le Bon issus de romans, d'extraits courts de livres, essais, discours ou entretiens de l'auteur. Le Bon continued writing throughout World War I, publishing Enseignements Psychologiques de la Guerre Européenne (1915), Premières conséquences de la guerre: transformation mentale des peuples (1916) and Hier et demain. [26], On his travels, Le Bon travelled largely on horseback and noticed that techniques used by horse breeders and trainers varied dependent on the region. [16], In 1884, he was commissioned by the French government to travel around Asia and report on the civilisations there. He was unsure as to what caused him to be thrown off the horse, and decided to begin a study of what he had done wrong as a rider. cit., p.17. Trotter's book Instincts of the Herd in Peace and War (1919) forms the basis for the research of both Wilfred Bion and Ernest Jones who established what would be called group dynamics. Básicamente planteaba que solo bajo ciertas condiciones geográficas podían aparecer … [31] Le Bon followed these with two more books on psychology, Psychologie du Socialisme and Psychologie de l'Éducation, in 1896 and 1902 respectively. Nous sommes donc au 19ème siècle, l’époque des grandes colon… [33] Not the same type of radiation as what is now known as black light, its existence was never confirmed and, similar to N rays, it is now generally understood to be non-existent, but the discovery claim attracted much attention among French scientists at the time, many of whom supported it and Le Bon's general ideas on matter and radiation, and he was even nominated for the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903. [27] The result of his study was L'Équitation actuelle et ses principes. Quand j’ai débuté mon doctorat, à Toulouse, j’ai vite compris que je ne devais jamais manquer de citer les travaux de Gustave Le Bon dans mes publications.