New York: Routledge. Al-Kindī, the first Islamic Peripatetic (Aristotelian) philosopher, and Turkish polymath al-Fārābī, from whose book Avicenna would learn Aristotle’s metaphysics, preceded him. He personified the ability to reconcile religion and empiricism/rationalism. AVICENNE ENERGY September 2017 Christophe PILLOT +33(0)6 88 82 79 49 Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. animaux merveilleux. Despite a general assessment favouring al-Rāzī’s medical contributions, many physicians historically preferred Avicenna for his organization and clarity. In gratitude, the sultan opened the royal Sāmānid library to him, a fortuitous benevolence that introduced Avicenna to a veritable cornucopia of science and philosophy. Books II and V each offer important compendia of about 760 simple and compound drugs that elaborate upon Galen’s humoral pathology. La séparation d’Avicenne entre « essence » et ««existence » a influencé la logique et les logiciens arabo-musulmans au Moyen-âge, dont Ibn al-NafÄ«s (1208-1288). The Philosophy of Avicenna and Its Influence on Medieval Europe. Avicenna explored the area of death anxiety and noticed this was a universal fear. When the sultan of Bukhara fell ill with an ailment that baffled the court physicians, Avicenna was called to his bedside and cured him. Al-Ghazali’s works made salient once again the hierarchy of intellectual worth, being the Qur’an and traditions of the Prophet at its head after the demise of Avicenna (Morowitz, 2005). Avicenna served as court physician, political counselor, and administrator to various dynastic rulers in parts of what are now Iran, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan. All Rights Reserved, Chicago | NEW YORK | Bay Area | Southern California | Toronto. Par conséquent, on peut dire avec certitude que Maïmonide a lu attentivement au moins une des œuvres d'Avicenne et que sa lettre ne se base pas uniquement sur ses propres œuvres antérieures, le « Commentaire sur la Mishnah », le « Code de la loi juive » et le « Guide des égarés ». Provo,UT: Brigham. Yet, he obviously practiced Greek physician Hippocrates’ treatment of spinal deformities with reduction techniques, an approach that had been refined by Greek physician and surgeon Paul of Aegina. This was declared without citation to have been attributed to Avicenna in A Rationalist Encyclopaedia : A Book of Reference on Religion, Philosophy, Ethics, and Science (1950), by Joseph McCabe, p. 43; it was also later wrongly attributed to Averroes in The Atheist World‎ (1991) by Madalyn Murray O'Hair, p. Enthousiasmé par cette conception, celui-ci a contribué au développement de la logique et à l’élaboration d’une théorie du terme (universel). Following up with mithridate (a mild opium remedy attributed to Mithradates VI Eupator, king of Pontus [120–63 bce]), a slave attempted to poison Avicenna by surreptitiously adding a surfeit of opium. Avicenne Invest 4, rue Pierre Brasseur L-1258 Luxembourg Though beneficial, Avicenna’s work offers a spiritual framework from which to approach this field based upon this indigenous knowledge and culturally congruent theory for further expansion and application with Muslim populations both in the West and Muslim world. Morowitz, H. (2005). One of these thinkers who had a tremendous influence on and intellectual achievements in the areas of science, law, music, poetry, mathematics, medicine, philosophy and psychology is Abu Ali al-Husayn Abdullah ibn Sina (know as Avicenna to the West) (Tschanz, 2003). Muslims were flirting with the ideas of Greek philosophy and Aristotelian metaphysics, while attempting to discover how their own Islamic tradition fit in with these ideas. Annals of, Tschanz, D. W. (2003). This network encompasses companies located in Japan, Europe, Switzerland, the USA, China, and South-East Asia. and challenges to contemporary Muslim psychologists. Avicenna’s influence on science and psychology in the West was certainly of value, but rarely is his name included in the books of history. Avicenna, and to a lesser extent Rhazes, gave many prominent medieval healers a framework of medicine as an empirical science integral to what McVaugh called “a rational schema of nature.” This should not be assumed to have led medieval physicians to construct a modern nosology or to develop modern research protocols. Avicenna’s suggestion of wine as a wound dressing was commonly employed in medieval Europe. He left the court and produced many works in addition to the two major books he authored. Journal of International Society for the, Your email address will not be published. Goodman, Lenn. Indeed, his influence over Europe’s great medical schools extended well into the early modern period. Furthermore, the mind is in control of the body and there is a direct hierarchical relationship between the two. The PAR Group is an exceptional training and development company with over 30 years of implementation in over 25 countries. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Voir plus d'idées sur le thème Avicenne, Muséographie, Conception d'exposition. Young University. To a large extent, the field of Islamic psychology is still premature and a lot of the developments of psychology as a field in Muslim countries have been on account of importing the secularly based Western theories rooted in a Eurocentric framework (Haque, 2004). The DSM in this regard may not necessarily be reflective of additional diagnoses that may exist in Muslim countries. Symbole de l’influence de la culture perse et arabe en Occident, voici comment Avicenne, médecin et philosophe perse, a révolutionné He also described a condition known as “Persian fire” (anthrax), correctly correlated the sweet taste of urine to diabetes, and described the guinea worm. Avicenna’s influence on psychology will be the focus of this paper and some of his ideas as influenced by the zeitgeist of his time and religious beliefs will be explored. The second treatise examines etiology (cause) and symptoms, while the third covers hygiene, health and sickness, and death’s inevitability. Avicenna’s most important work of philosophy and science is Kitāb al-shifāʾ, which is a four-part encyclopaedia covering logic, physics, mathematics, and metaphysics. These ideas are similar to Cognitive-Behavioral theory as pathology is seen as a lack of understanding of the disorder that one has and disordered thinking. HENRI HUGONNARD-ROCHE, La classification des sciences de Gundissalinus et l'influence d'Avicenne, in Etudes sur Avicenne, ed. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Journal of Religion and, Haque, A. People with authority had better access to information. Prior to these works he served as a Vizier (political leadership) in modern day Syria (Hamdhan), but was forced to go into hiding, due to furious intellectual debates that took place between he and others in the court (Goodman, 1992). By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Once cognitive restructuring is underway, the experienced disorder should diminish. It's on... © 2019 Khalil Center. thinking). (2004). Abu Ali al-Hussein ibn-Abdullah Ibn-Sina connu par les Occidentaux sous le nom d'Avicenne, est probablement né en l'année 980, près de Boukhara en Perse, aujourd'hui en Ouzbékistan. Much of the focus on the development of modern science and clinical psychology can be historically traced back through the western historical tradition and can be seen as a natural symbiosis of the fields of philosophy and science. Omissions? Avicenna combined Neoplatonic and especially Aristotelian philosophy with elements of Islamic theology into a comprehensive system. During his era, physicians were afforded a high status in Islamic society as it followed from Islamic teachings that sickness was a normal part of life, a spiritual cleansing for the ill, where healers were revered as being able to speed up the recovery. Mathematics is divided into four principal sciences: numbers and arithmetic, geometry and geography, astronomy, and music. With PAR, the Performance is Unlimited. Avicenna divided human perceptions into five external and internal senses: (a) Senus communis which integrates sense data into precepts; (b) imaginative faculty that conserves perceptual images; (c) sense of imagination that acts upon the imaginative faculty, producing practical intelligence; (d) moral instinct propelling one to perceive good and bad, love and hate, making up ones character and; (e) intention that conserves all of the above notions in memory and influences behavior (Haque, 2004). The techniques were not used again until French surgeon Jean-François Calot reintroduced the practice in 1896. We are improving the ability to lead and influence at every level within various organizations. Thus, their cultural beliefs were remote from those of the 20th-century West and those of their Hellenistic predecessors. l'influence d'Avicenne sur d'autres penseurs, en particulier Albert, et donne quelques précisions sur l'enracinement de 1 epistémologie dans l'ontologie : le concept à'intentio (ma'nan), celui … Avicenna is the greatest philosopher of the Islamic world. The era that Avicenna lived in was a golden time of intellectual growth in the Islamic world. Zygon: Journal, Sajadi, M. M., Mansouri, D., & Sajadi, M. R. M. (2009). Reduction involved the use of pressure and traction to straighten or otherwise correct bone and joint deformities such as curvature of the spine. Recherche - Solution. Of these luminaries, however, Avicenna remains by far the greatest. This is reflective of his religious beliefs regarding Islamic prohibitions of excessive expressions of love towards anything other than God. Avicenna. He said that anger resulted when one transitioned from melancholia to mania. Avicenna’s penchant for categorizing becomes immediately evident in the Canon, which is divided into five books. Enthousiasmé par cette conception, celui-ci a contribué au développement de la logique et à l’élaboration d’une théorie du terme (universel). 1969. He believed the cause for this was an abundance of humidity in the head. 2020 - Découvrez le tableau "Avicenne" de plantius sur Pinterest. On the way he took a severe turn for the worse, lingered for a while, and died in the holy month of Ramadan. His immense impact on Christian and Jewish medieval thought, as well as on the subsequent Islamic tradition, is charted in this volume alongside studies which provide a comprehensive introduction to and analysis of his philosophy. 1270–1330), and Nicholas of Poland (c. 1235–1316)., Jewish Virtual Library - Biography of Avicenna, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Biography of Avicenna, - Biography of Avicenna, Islamic Philosophy Online - Biography of Ibn Sina, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Biography of Avicenna, Encyclopædia Iranica - Biography of Avicenna, Science Museum - Brought to Life - Biography of Abu Ali al-Husayn ibn Abdullah ibn Sina, MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive - Biography of Abu Ali al-Husain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina, Avicenna - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Haque, A. Several points are needed to make the philosophical and scientific views of these men comprehensible today. Journal of Religion and Health, 43 (4), Theirs was the culture of the ʿAbbāsid Caliphate (750–1258), the final ruling dynasty built on the precepts of the first Muslim community (ummah) in the Islamic world. Some of these interventions may stand to offer a source of guidance for individuals from diverse backgrounds as we move more towards a global and diverse world. The subordinate sciences, in order of importance, as designated by Avicenna, are medicine; astrology; physiognomy, the study of the correspondence of psychological characteristics to physical structure; oneiromancy, the art of dream interpretation; talismans, objects with magical power to blend the celestial forces with the forces of particular worldly bodies, giving rise to extraordinary action on earth; theurgy, the “secrets of prodigies,” whereby the combining of terrestrial forces are made to produce remarkable actions and effects; and alchemy, an arcane art studied by Avicenna, although he ultimately rejected its transmutationism (the notion that base metals, such as copper and lead, could be transformed into precious metals, such as gold and silver). This year’s Edelman Trust Barometer introduces a new model of influence designed to build trust and, through that trust, to bridge the divide between those with influence and those with authority. More importantly, his theology—the First Cause and the 10 intelligences—allowed his philosophy, with its devotion to God as Creator and the celestial hierarchy, to be imported easily into medieval European Scholastic thought. Similarly, Avicenna recommends that religio-education be sought out in order to alleviate these thoughts, thus reducing the experience of death anxiety. An edition of Iranian physician Avicenna's, Illustrations of Muslim physician Avicenna's recommended spinal manipulations, from the 1556 edition of Avicenna's, Illustrations from the 1556 edition of Iranian physician Avicenna's. Their worldview was theocentric (centred on God)—rather than anthropocentric (centred on humans), a perspective known to the Greco-Roman world. Avicenna’s The Canon of Medicine served as a textbook in Europe until the mid-17th century. La biographie d'Avicenne est connue grâce au récit que laissa son élève Al-Djourdjani. Avicenna’s most influential works were Kitāb al-shifāʾ (Book of the Cure, or The Cure), an encyclopaedic exposition of logic, physics, mathematics, and metaphysics, and Al-Qānūn fī al-ṭibb (The Canon of Medicine), one of the most important texts in the history of medicine. This tremendous influence and task was later taken up by St. Thomas Aquinas to do the same in Europe later leading to the Renaissance and intellectual reawakening in Europe. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. That caused ulceration of the intestines. Despite Avicenna’s unorthodox views, his influence in the area of medicine and science cannot be disputed and his books continued to be a source of study for five centuries in Europe and even longer in the Islamic world. (2005). Book II of the Canon is a “Materia Medica,” Book III covers “Head-to-Toe Diseases,” Book IV examines “Diseases That Are Not Specific to Certain Organs” (fevers and other systemic and humoral pathologies), and Book V presents “Compound Drugs” (e.g., theriacs, mithridates, electuaries, and cathartics). Avicenna’s 14 volume text on medicine is still a topic of research in many Muslim countries and has led to numerous investigations into his ideas that guide some current experimentation (Tschanz, 2003). Avicenna’s cosmology centralized God as the Creator—the First Cause, the necessary Being from whom emanated the 10 intelligences and whose immutable essence and existence reigned over those intelligences. Son père est collecteur d'impôts de l'administration samanide. Religion and mental health: The case of American Muslims. For example, in the physics section, nature is discussed in the context of eight principal sciences, including the sciences of general principles, of celestial and terrestrial bodies, and of primary elements, as well as meteorology, mineralogy, botany, zoology, and psychology (science of the soul). Khalil Center is a psychological and spiritual community wellness center advancing the professional practice of psychology rooted in Islamic principles. In fact, evidence of his troubling ideas that did not quite fit very well with the Islamic orthodoxy of the time due to his being heavily influenced  by Aristotelian philosophy became manifest in a rebuttal written by another influential philosopher Abu Hamid al-Ghazali. Avicenna began his prodigious writing career at age 21. Avicenna talked about psychological disorders and believed that melancholia is a disorder where one becomes suspicious and is usually mixed with certain types of phobias. The First Intelligence descended on down to the Active Intelligence, which communicated to humans through its divine light, a symbolic attribute deriving authority from the Qurʾān. This is contrary to the prevalent Christian ideas in Europe that sickness was a form of retribution for wrongdoings leaving the sick to be oft-neglected. We are one of the leading consulting firms in the world that specializes in high-growth technology markets: Medical Devices, Energy, and Telecom & IT. Evidence-based medicine, for example, is often presented as a wholly contemporary phenomenon driven by the double-blind clinical trial. He became such a prominent physician that by the age of 18, he was called to treat the Prince ibn Mansur of the Abbasid Caliphate (the ruling government of the time)(Tschanz, 2003). Metaphysics of The Healing (M. E. Marmura, Trans.). Such that, when the mind wants to move the body, it obeys. Avicenne est aussi un personnage incontournable du roman Le Médecin d'Ispahan de Noah Gordon (1986), adapté au cinéma sous le titre L'Oracle et dans lequel Avicenne est interprété par Ben Kingsley. This cultural difference is apparent in that modern western culture often sees love and passion as something to be highly sought after. La séparation d’Avicenne entre « essence » et ««existence » a influencé la logique et les logiciens arabo-musulmans au Moyen-âge, dont Ibn al-NafÄ«s (1208-1288). Psychology from an Islamic perspective: Contributions of early Muslim scholars. This included the following types of disordered thinking: (a) ignorance as to what death is, (b) uncertainty of what is to follow after death and (c) supposing that after death, the soul may cease to exist. 41-75. in Annali dell'Istituto e Museo di storia della scienza di Firenze Ibn Sina: “The prince of physicians”. (2004). influencé par la lumière — Solutions pour Mots fléchés et mots croisés. But a judgment issued 800 years later begs the question: By what contemporary measure is an appraisal of “better” made? While he was generally within the tradition of al-Fārābī and al-Kindī, he more clearly dissociated himself from the Peripatetic school of Baghdad and utilized concepts of the Platonic and Stoic doctrines more openly and with a more independent mind. He completed the memorization of the Qur’an at age 10 and immediately thereafter went onto study mathematics, physics and philosophy. Understanding Islamically Integrated Therapy: Your email address will not be published. la littrature traditionnelle. Welcome to AVICENNE. CHICAGO | NEW YORK | BAY AREA | SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA | TORONTO, KHALIL CENTER IS A 501c3 Nonprofit Organization TAX ID #47-1313957, Traditional Islamically Integrated Psychotherapy (TIIP). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. By age 16 Avicenna turned to medicine, a discipline over which he claimed “easy” mastery. We have developed an extensive business network due to our expertise and our continuous collaboration with top managers. This is not to say that Avicenna’s influence was greeted openly by physician in the same way or to the same extent. Although, this is a rich legacy that has led us to the present, the traditions present in the Eastern parts of the world should not be neglected. "Ibn Sina (Arabic), also known as Avicenna (Latin) and Abu Ali Sina (Persian) was the most original and systematic Muslim philosopher. He read Aristotle’s metaphysics over 40 times and at age 16 he turned to the study of medicine. (Original work published 1009 CE). Historically, influence and authority went hand-in-hand. Latin translations of his work guided the 13th-century reception of Aristotle within Western Scholasticism, notably in the writings of Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas. Avicenna believed that the human mind is like a mirror and has the ability to reflect knowledge as it utilizes active intelligence (i.e. However, the preparation was either inadvertently or intentionally altered by an attendant to include five measures of active ingredient instead of the prescribed two. Corrections? The debate between science and religion: The road less traveled. This led Avicenna down many paths of scientific inquiry that touched upon his ideas of psychology both from a philosophical and scientific lens. Avicenna did not burst upon an empty Islamic intellectual stage. Avicenna. Avicenna stated that there were three cognitive types of causes for death anxiety. Par exemple, Avicenne écrit que le cœur possède trois ventricules, au lieu de deux. Avicenna, Arabic Ibn Sīnā, in full Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Sīnā, (born 980, near Bukhara, Iran [now in Uzbekistan]—died 1037, Hamadan, Iran), Muslim physician, the most famous and influential of the philosopher-scientists of the medieval Islamic world. Welcome to AVICENNE Energy. Avicenna was drawn to these philosophical conversations and consolidated many of his ideas of theology, the nature of the human being, the soul, medicine and science into two prominent works, The Canon of Medicine andThe Book of Healings. Influence on Medieval Europe: He personified the ability to reconcile religion and empiricism/rationalism. Some 240 extant titles bear his name. He stated that the degree of anxiety one experiences is directly related to the level of knowledge one has about the idea of death (Avicenna, 1009). Avicenna also believed that a strong personality or soul could influence others via hypnosis (called al-wahm al-amil). There The Canon of Medicine (Al-Qānūn fī al-ṭibb) became the preeminent source, rather than al-Rāzī’s Kitāb al-ḥāwī (Comprehensive Book). The largest of the U.S. states east of the Mississippi River and the youngest of the 13 former English colonies, Georgia was founded in 1732, at which time its Required fields are marked *. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. While in the company of ʿAlā al-Dawlah, Avicenna fell ill with colic. Goodman, L. E. (1992). Evidence-based medicine, for example, is often presented as a wholly contemporary phenomenon driven by the double-blind clinical trial. Logic was viewed by Avicenna as instrumental to philosophy, an art and a science to be concerned with second-order concepts. This is very similar to present scientific evidence on the influence of stress on the immune system, leading to a possible increase in physical sicknesses. We are a consulting firm specializing in high growth technology markets. Strong emotions can cause self-fulfilling prophecies, if one believes that one is going to fail, the likelihood of failure would increase. More than 200 extant works have been attributed to him. Avicenna’s influence extends into modern medical practice. Additionally, the incorporation of those ideas that have not been well understood or heard may shed some light on potential interventions for present day utility. Abu Ali al-Husayn Abdullah ibn Sina (980-1037 C.E) was born in Afshena, Persia. It is believed that Muslim writer Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ, or possibly his son, had introduced Aristotelian logic to the Islamic world more than two centuries before Avicenna. Avicenna’s influence on science and psychology in the West was certainly of value, but rarely is his name included in the books of history. At some point in his later years, Avicenna wrote for or dictated to his student, companion, and amanuensis, AbÅ«-Ê¿Ubayd al-JÅ«zjānÄ«, his Autobiography, reaching till the time in his middle years when they first met; al-JÅ«zjānÄ« continued the biography after that point and completed it some time after the master’s death in 1037 AD. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). They cross numerous fields, including mathematics, geometry, astronomy, physics, metaphysics, philology, music, and poetry. Colophon from the 1593 edition of Muslim physician Avicenna's. Updates? Le pessimisme de Pline est rest sans influence sur le temprament de Rabelais. AVICENNE is a small company with an international reputation. — Avicenna. Sources on his life range from his autobiography, written at the behest of his disciple ‘Abd al-Wahid Juzjani, his private correspondence, including the collection of philosophical epistles exchanged with his disciples and known as al-Mubahathat (The Discussions), to legends and doxographical views embedded in the ‘histories of philosophy’ of medieval Islam such as Ibn al-Qifti’s Ta’rikh al-hukama (History of the Philosophers) and Zahir al … In the Islamic world, several of those medical poems written after Ibn Sina are still extant but only in the form of unedited manuscripts. Professor and Associate Director for Historical Collections, University of Alabama at Birmingham. Since 1992, we have rapidly established a solid reputation in Energy and Batteries, where we work with the largest players in the industry and organize a world-class conference, "Batteries".AVICENNE Energy is involved as partner, in a large European project: CarE-Service. But, as medical historian Michael McVaugh pointed out, medieval physicians went to great pains to build their practices upon reliable evidence. de. He composed the Kitāb al-shifāʾ (Book of the Cure), a vast philosophical and scientific encyclopaedia, and Al-Qānūn fī al-ṭibb (The Canon of Medicine), which is among the most famous books in the history of medicine. The first book contains four treatises, the first of which examines the four elements (earth, air, fire, and water) in light of Greek physician Galen of Pergamum’s four humours (blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile). Translated from the French La philosophie d'Avicenne et son influence en Europe médiévale with notes, annotations, and a preface by M. S. Khan. Another influence of Ibn Sina’s medical poem was the spread of popularity in composing didactic poems and utilising it in medical education. We advise multinational corporations, public institutions and investors, and assist them in making the best possible strategic, financial and operational decisions. par J. Jolivet et R. Rashed. Unfortunately, Avicenna’s original clinical records, intended as an appendix to the Canon, were lost, and only an Arabic text has survived in a Roman publication of 1593. RT @DrRaniaAwaad: @WattsIdris @sarahradone @KhalilCenter Barak Allahu fik! According to Avicenna’s personal account of his life, as communicated in the records of his longtime pupil al-Jūzjānī, he read and memorized the entire Qurʾān by age 10. While Europe was facing an intellectual decline during these dark ages with a halt to the progression of knowledge and philosophical debates since the Hellenistic era, the Muslim world, stretching from North Africa, including Spain all the way across Western Asia and parts of Europe to the borders of China, continued to advance in their intellectual developments and pursuits. But, as medical historian Michael McVaugh pointed out, medieval physicians went to great pains to build their practices upon reliable evidence. Avicenna’s influence extends into modern medical practice. However, it is equally ahistorical to dismiss the contributions of Avicenna, and the Greco-Arabic literature of which he was such a prominent part, to the construction of modalities of care that were fundamentally evidence-based. 357-377. Recherche - Définition. The fourth treatise is a therapeutic nosology (classification of disease) and a general overview of regimens and dietary treatments. 29 janv. Their cosmology was a unity of natural, supernatural, and preternatural realms. Paris, Les Belles Lettres, 1984, pp. In fact, Avicenna made other hypotheses concerning the neurological origins of various diseases, but due to religious prohibitions of cutting open the head, he was not permitted to experiment in this capacity. Since science was equated with wisdom, Avicenna attempted a broad unified classification of knowledge. reptiles, alors qu'il tire. Études sur Avicenne. He was particularly noted for his contributions in the fields of Aristotelian philosophy and medicine. This can also cause a disturbance in health, in that the mind can influence health and impact vegetative functions (Haque, 2004). This is something that is admirable and is absolutely necessary in today’s context, given all the appropriate channels to do so in a globalized world and its growing diversity in thought. People were intimidated by his intellectual capacities and were also troubled by his unorthodox thinking and ideas. He treated himself by employing the heroic measure of eight self-administered celery-seed enemas in one day. If Avicenna could be said to have had any halcyon days, they occurred during his time at Eṣfahān, where he was insulated from political intrigues and could hold his own scholars’ court every Friday, discussing topics at will. Weakened but indefatigable, he accompanied ʿAlā al-Dawlah on his march to Hamadan. Ibn Sina and the clinical trial. Avicenna also wrote about love sickness/disorder, theorizing that excessive passion was at the root of this disorder. Here, Avicenna played a leading role as a prominent figure within the Greco-Arabic literature that influenced such 13th-century physicians as Arnold of Villanova (c. 1235–1313), Bernard de Gordon (fl. The second level of control the mind has on the body is through influencing emotions and will. Il. In this climate of receptivity to healers, Avicenna was free to explore his ideas through experimentation. Breathing results in moisture getting to the head, but if you have too much moisture in your head, it may develop into a mental disorder (Haque, 2004). La construction de la problématique de l'un transcendantal, convertible avec l'être, et de l'un numérique, non convertible, illustre bien cette dépendance: toute la discussion scolastique reproduit les grandes lignes de la position d'Avicenne, puis la critique d'Avicenne par Averroès. Avicenna proposed applying logic to the testing of drugs and was permitted to experiment with his ideas in clinical trials (Sajadi, Mansouri & Sajadi, 2009). Rechercher Il y a 1 les résultats correspondant à votre recherche Cliquez sur un mot pour découvrir sa définition.